Sociale determinationsfaktorer

Ownership economic  
Gunnar Heinsohn and Otto Steiger 2013: Ownership economics: on the foundations of interest, money, markets, business cycles and economic development.
Routledge. ... 
Review ... 

Gunnar Heinsohn  
Economics and Demography


Earle, Joe, Cahal Moran and Zach Ward-Perkins 2016: The Econocracy: The Perils of Leaving Economics to the Experts. Manchester University Press. 

One hundred years ago the idea of 'the economy' didn't exist. Now, improving the economy has come to be seen as perhaps the most important task facing modern societies. Politics and policymaking are conducted in the language of economics and economic logic shapes how political issues are thought about and addressed. The result is that the majority of citizens, who cannot speak this language, are locked out of politics while political decisions are increasingly devolved to experts.
Amazon ... 

Erik Olin Wright, Envisioning Real Utopias  
Table of Contents ... 
References ... pdf 

Gibson-Graham, J K . 2006. A Postcapitalist Politics (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006)

Gibson-Graham, J K . 2003. “A diverse economy: rethinking economy and economic representation”, 

Hansmann, Henry. 1996. The Ownership of Enterprise. (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1996).

Hodgson, Geoff. 1999. Economics and Utopia: why the learning economy is not the end of history
(London: Routledge: 1999). 

Kenworthy, Lane.  2007. Egalitarian Capitalism: Jobs, Incomes, and Growth in Affluent Countries (New York: Russell Sage Foundation).

Mendell, Marguerite, Benoit Levesque and Ralph Rouzier.2000. “The role of the non-profit sector in local development: new trends”, Paper presented at OECD/LEED Forum on Social Innovation, August 31, 2000;

Mendell, Marguerite. 2002. “The Social Economy in Québec: Discourses and Strategies” in Bakan,
Abigail, and Macdonal, Eleanor (eds), Critical Political Studies: Debates From the Left. Kingston: Queen's University Press, pages 319-343. 

Mendell, Marguerite, J-L. Laville and B. Levesque. 2007.“The Social Economy: Diverse Approaches
and Practices in Europe and Canada” in A. Noya and E. Clarence, editors. The Social Economy. Building
Inclusive Economies, France: OECD Publications, 2007. pp. 155-187. 

Nancy, Neamtan. 2005. “The Social Economy: finding a way between the market and the state”, Policy Options, July/August 2005, pages 71-76.

Neamtan, Nancy, and Rupert Downing. 2005. “Social economy and community economic development in
Canada: Next steps for public policy”, Chantier de l'économie sociale issues paper, September 19, 2005. 

Neamtam, Nancy (2005) “Building The Social Economy: The Quebec Experience”, Presentation at
Seminar organised by Euresa Institute Stockholm, Sweden March 29-30, 2005.

Santos, Boaventura, 1998. “Participatory Budgeting in Porto Alegre: Towards a Redistributive
Democracy,” Politics & Society 26:4: 461-510.”

Santos, Boaventura (ed). 2006. Democratizing Democracy: beyond the liberal democratic cannon.
(London: Verso). 

Streeck,Wolfgang. 1985. “Community, Market, State and Associations? The Prospective Contribution of
Interest Governance to Social Order.” In, Streeck, Wolfgang and Philippe C. Schmitter, eds., Private
Interest Government: Beyond Market and State. (Beverly Hills and London: Sage, 1985) pp. 1-29

Streeck,Wolfgang. 1992. Social Institutions and Economic Performance: Studies of Industrial Relations in
Advanced Capitalist Economies. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage. 

Tapscott, Don and Anthony D. Williams, Wikinomics: how mass collaboration changes everything. (New
York: Penguin, 2006).


Atkeson, Andrew and Patrick J. Kehoe. 2007. “Modeling the Transition to a New Economy:
Lessons from Two Technological Revolutions.” American Economic Review, 97(1): 64-88.


The Blockchain Economy: A beginner’s guide to institutional cryptoeconomics
Chris Berg, Sinclair Davidson and Jason Potts are from the RMIT Blockchain Innovation Hub, the world’s first social science research centre into the economics, politics, sociology, and law of blockchain technology.
... The economic consequences of the blockchain ... ...

Blockchain definition
A blockchain has been defined as “a continuously growing list of records, called blocks, which are linked and secured using cryptography”

Om blockchain

Annales school

Boldizzoni, Francesco (2011). The Poverty of Clio: Resurrecting Economic History. Princeton University Press. ...

"With impressive erudition and verve, Boldizzoni laments that much economic history has become a mere handmaiden of neoclassical economics. He seeks to reinvigorate its classic focus on how the economy unfolds in its social and cultural setting. Drawing on sophisticated and subtle European historiography such as the Annales school, ... economists have invented an entire discipline, cliometrics, whose task seems to be to create narratives of the past compatible with dominant neoliberal ideas and implicitly endorsing specific policy recommendations. ... ...

Long Wave

Nikolai Kondratiev’s “Long Wave”: The Mirror of the Global Economic Crisis

The Global Economy is Facing a "Long Wave" Recession.
...  the interest to the theory of grand cycles rejuvenates usually in the declining phases  ...

The declining phase
from 2000-2007 till approximately 2015-2025 
The rising phase
from 2015-2025 till 2035-2045 ...

Barro, R.J. (1997), Determinants of Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Empirical Study. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

World in 2050
The BRICs and beyond: prospects, challenges
and opportunities ... .pdf 

Wilson, D. and R. Purushothaman (2003), ‘Dreaming With BRICs: The Path to 2050’, Goldman Sachs, Global Economics Paper No.99, October 2003.

Solow, R. (1956), ‘A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth’, Quarterly Journal of Economics,
February 1956.

Solow, R. (1957), ‘Technical Change and the Aggregate Production Function’, Review of Economics and Statistics, August 1957.


Why Workers Are Losing to Capitalists
Automation and offshoring may be conspiring to reduce labor's share of income. ...  

Concentrating on the Fall of the Labor Share  
Autor D, Dorn D, Katz LF, Patterson C, Reenen JV. ... 

Rise of Superstar Firms 
Autor, David, David Dorn, Lawrence F. Katz,
Christina Patterson, and John Van Reenen. 2017. “The Fall of the Labor Share and the Rise of Superstar Firms ... 

Daron Acemoglu ... 

David Autor ... 

Økonomi og politik  

Atkinson, A.B. & S. Morelli (2014). Chartbook of Economic Inequality ...pdf

Bainbridge, S. (2015). ‘In the Future, What Will People Do?’ In: Dolphin (ed.) Technology, Globalisation and the Future of Work in Europe. Essays on Employment in a Digitised Economy. London: IPPR. ...

Bruegel, ‘The Computerisation of European Jobs. Who Will Win and Who Will Lose from the Impact of New Technology onto Old Areas of Employment?’, 17 juli 2014. ...
Jeremy Bowles 2014: The computerisation of European jobs ...

Brynjolfsson, E. & A. McAfee (2014). The Second Machine Age. Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies. New York: WW Norton.

Brynjolfsson, E. & A. McAfee (2011). The Race Against the Machine. How the Digital Revolution is Accelerating Innovation, Driving Productivity, and Irreversibly Transforming Employment and the Economy. Lexington: Digital Frontier Press.

Dolphin, T. (ed.) (2015). Technology, Globalisation and the Future of Work in Europe. Essays on Employment in a Digitised Economy. London: IPPR.

Elliott, S.W. (2008). ‘Projecting the Impact of Computers on Work in 2030’. In: Hilton (2008). Research on Future Skill Demands. A Workshop Summary. National Research Council. Washington: The National Academies Press. 

Elliott, S.W. (2014). Anticipating a Luddite Revival

Est, R. van & L. Kool (eds.). Working on the robot society: visions and insights from science concerning the relationship between technology and employment, The Hague, Rathenau Instituut 2015. 

Ford, M. (2015). The Rise of the Robots. Technology and the Threat of a Jobless Future. New York: Basic Books. 

Freeman, R.B. (2014). ‘Who Owns the Robots Rules the World’. IZA, World of Labor. Evidence-based policy making.

Frey, C. B., and M. A. Osborne. The Future of Employment: How Susceptible are Jobs to
Computerisation? Oxford Martin School Working Paper, September 17, 2013. Online at: ... pdf

Miller, B. & R.D. Atkinson (2013). Are robots taking our jobs, or making them?
Washington: The Information Technology & Innovation Foundation (ITIF).

Mishel, L., J. Schmitt, and H. Shierholz. Robots: Assessing the Job Polarization Explanation of Growing Wage Inequality. Economic Policy Institute Working Paper No. 295, January 11, 2013. ...

Rifkin, J. The End of Work: The Decline of the Global Labor Force and the Dawn of the Post-Market Era.
Kirkwood, NY: Putnam Publishing Group, 1995

Paul Mason: Postcapitalism. A Guide to Our Future, London: Penguin 2016.

Anmeldelse v/Curt Sørensen
Mason kommer dog ikke ind på den videre moderne diskussion om forskellige tolkninger af værdi ...(Heinrich, Harvey, Kliman o.a.) 
Den fjerde bølge fra o. 1948 frem til 2008 var masseforbrugets, automatiseringens og atomkraftens tidsalder ... Fra midten af 90’erne og fremefter kan man så skimte en begyndende ny – en femte- cyklus drevet af informationsteknologi ... 
Den klassiske arbejderbvægelse og dens projekt er brudt sammen, erklærer Mason tydeligvis inspireret af Andre Gorz. I stedet er trådt en ny generation af unge veluddannede, informationssøgende rebeller, en ny ’historisk agent, ’the networked individual’. ...

Paul Masons 'Postkapitalisme', linksamling ...


Kondratieff's economic cycle
Modis, Theodore 2017: A hard-science approach to Kondratieff's economic cycle. Technological Forecasting and Social Change Volume 122, September 2017, Pages 63-70. ... pdf

Kondratieff's work has been challenged by ... 
Murray Rothbard (Rothbard, 1978). ... pdf

Rothbard, Murray, 1978. The Kondratieff cycle myth. In: Inflation Survival Letters, (14 June, see also, The Kondratieff Cycle: Real or Fabricated? Investment Insights, (August and September 1984)).

Stewart, Hugh B., 1989a. Recollecting the Future: A View of Business, Technology, and Innovation in the Next 30 Years. Dow Jones-Irwin, Homewood, IL. ... pdf

Stewart, Hugh B., 1989b. Recollecting the Future: A View of Business, Technology, and Innovation in the Next 30 Years. Dow Jones-Irwin, Homewood, IL, pp. 63–64 (see also Theodore Modis, Predictions: Society's Telltale Signature Reveals the Past and
Forecasts the Future, Simon & Schuster, New York, 1992, p. 266). ... k_waves .. ...k_waves_2 ...

Leonid E. Grinin, Anton L. Grinin, and Andrey Korotayev, Forthcoming Kondratieff wave,
cybernetic revolution, and global ageing, Technol. Forecast. Soc. Chang., vol. 115,
pp. 52–68.

de Groot, Bert, Franses, Philip Hans, 2008. Stability through cycles. Technol. Forecast. Soc. Chang. 75 (3), 301–311 (2008).
(———— Cycles in basic innovations, Technological forecasting and social change, vol. 76, no. 8 (2009): 1021–1025.
———— Common socio-economic cycle periods, Technological forecasting and social change, vol. 79, no. 1 (2012): 59–68).


Daniel Krier, Mark P. Worrell, editors 2017: 
The social ontology of capitalism
... Toward a New Paradigm for Critical Theory ...

Kapitalisme og økologi 

Moore, Jason W.  2015: Capitalism in the Web of Life: Ecology and the Accumulation of Capital 
Verso Books. 

Charting the recurrent crises, and long cyclical expansions of capitalism as socio-ecological process over the past six centuries, Jason Moore provides a groundbreaking theory and historical account of capitalism's development that comprehends the transformation of nature as constitutive of capital accumulation. Along the way, he moves beyond the society/nature distinction that limits so much environmentalism. ...

In Capitalism in the Web of Life, Jason W. Moore argues that the sources of today's global turbulence have a common cause: capitalism as a way of organizing nature, including human nature ... ...

Computer Revolution - An Economic Perspective

Sichel, Daniel (1997). The Computer Revolution: An Economic Perspective. Washington: Brookings.

Robert J. Gordon:
An explanation developed by Daniel Sichel (1997) and others was that back in the 1970s and 1980s computers were just too small a fraction of the capital stock to have a measurable impact on aggregate productivity growth.


Robots, economy and politics

Jeffrey D. Sachs, Seth G. Benzell, Guillermo LaGarda 2015: Robots: Curse or Blessing? A Basic Framework

Do robots raise or lower economic well-being? On the one hand, they raise output and bring more goods and services into reach. On the other hand, they eliminate jobs, shift investments away from machines that complement labor, lower wages, and immiserize workers who cannot compete. The net effect of these offsetting forces is unclear. ... Policies that redistribute income across generations can ensure that a rise in robotic productivity benefits all generations.

Stiglitz, Joseph E. 2014. Unemployment and Innovation.” NBER Working Paper No. 20670.

Artificial Intelligence and the Modern Productivity Paradox: A Clash of Expectations and Statistics October 2017 
Erik Brynjolfsson, Daniel Rock, Chad Syverson 
in Economics of Artificial Intelligence, Ajay K. Agrawal, Joshua Gans, and Avi Goldfarb, editors

Economics of Artificial Intelligence, Ajay K. Agrawal, Joshua Gans, and Avi Goldfarb, editors

Robots Are Us: Some Economics of Human Replacement February 2015 
Seth G. Benzell, Laurence J. Kotlikoff, Guillermo LaGarda, Jeffrey D. Sachs

Autor, David and Anna Salomons, 2017. “Robocalypse Now–Does Productivity Growth
Threaten Employment? MIT working paper.
Brynjolfsson, Erik and Andrew McAfee 2017 What’s Driving the Machine Learning
Explosion?” Harvard Business Review, July 18, 2017.

Economics of Information Technology 

Hal R. Varian, Joseph Farrell, and Carl Shapiro, The Economics of Information Technology—An Introduction (Cambridge University Press, 2004).


The Rise and Fall of Infrastructures
Griibler, Arnulf 1990: The Rise and Fall
of Infrastructures. Dynamics of Evolution and
Technological Change in Transport.
Physica-Verlag Heidelberg.

Økonomi begrebet

Raworth, Kate 2017: Doughnut Economics: Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st-Century Economist 
...  Along the way, she points out how we can break our addiction to growth; redesign money, finance, and business to be in service to people; and create economies that are regenerative ... Doughnut Economics offers a radically new compass for guiding global development, government policy, and corporate strategy, and sets new standards for what economic success looks like. ...

... Kate Raworth of Oxford University’s Environmental Change Institute reminds us that economic growth was not, at first, intended to signify wellbeing. Simon Kuznets, who standardised the measurement of growth, warned: “The welfare of a nation can scarcely be inferred from a measure of national income.” Economic growth, he pointed out, measured only annual flow, rather than stocks of wealth and their distribution. ... 

Simon Kuznets - "Kuznets cycles", and alternatively as "long swings"  
... Historical series of economic dynamics and Kuznets cycles, or "long swings". 
... allowed him to identify medium-term extended cycles of economic activity, which lasted 15–25 years and had an intermediate position between the Kondratyev “long waves" and short business cycles. 
... Kuznets helped the U.S. Department of Commerce to standardize the measurement of GNP. He disapproved, however, of its use as a general indication of welfare.
... Kuznets used new data to show that, over a longer span of time (1870's – 1940's) the savings ratio remained constant, despite large changes in income. This paved the way for Milton Friedman's Permanent Income Hypothesis, and several more modern alternatives such as the Life cycle hypothesis and the Relative Income Hypothesis.

Simon Kuznets proposed research program that involved extensive empirical studies on the four key elements of economic growth. The elements were demographic growth, growth of knowledge, in-country adaptation to growth factors, and external economic relations between the countries.

Machine-learning Techniques in Economics
New Tools for Predicting Economic Growth
Authors: Basuchoudhary, Atin, Bang, James T., Sen, Tinni 2017. 
... This book develops a machine-learning framework for predicting economic growth.  ... Variables, Partial Dependence Plots (PDP) ... Temples (1999) parameter heterogeneity. ... 

Temple, J. (1999), “The New Growth Evidence,” Journal of Economic Literature, 37,

Worldbank research

Global Economic Prospects, June 2018
Global economic growth will remain robust at 3.1 percent in 2018 before slowing gradually over the next two years.

Atlas of Sustainable Development  
Atlas of Sustainable Development Goals 2018: From World Development Indicators