Sociale determinationsfaktorer

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Fri vilje og determination

Honderich, Ted: A Theory of Determinism
Clarendon. Reprint 1990-91.
A Theory of Determinism, Bind 2, 1988 ...

Ted Honderich ... ...

Review ...pdf

Neural Basis, Hierarchy versus Egalitarianism 
Chiao, J. Y., V. A. Mathur, T. Harada and T. Lipke. 2009.
“Neural Basis of Preference for Human Social Hierarchy versus Egalitarianism.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1167: 174–81.

References ... pdf

Mental models

Peter Seng
Disciplin 2 og 3: 
2: Mental models are deeply ingrained assumptions, generalizations, or even pictures of images that influence how we understand the world and how we take action." (minder lidt om Freuds begreb om underbevidsthed og realitetsprincip).
3: "Building shared vision - a practice of unearthing shared pictures of the future that foster genuine commitment and enrollment rather than compliance."

Process of learningDouble-loop learning
Double-loop learning  is used when it is necessary to change the mental model on which a decision depends.

Mental models
Wilson, J. R., and A. Rutherford. 1989. Mental models: theory and application in human factors. Human Factors 31:617-634.

Mental models 
Jones, N. A., H. Ross, T. Lynam, P. Perez, and A. Leitch. 2011. Mental models: an interdisciplinary synthesis of theory and methods. Ecology and Society 16(1): 46.

Fuzzy cognitive maps 
Mental Modeler: A Fuzzy-Logic Cognitive Mapping Modeling

M. van Vliet, K. Kok, and T. Veldkamp, T., 2010.
Linking stakeholders and modellers in scenario studies: the use of fuzzy cognitive maps as a communication and learning tool. Futures 42 (1). 

Psykologi og kultur

Strauss, C., and N. Quinn. 1997. A cognitive theory of cultural meaning. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Swan, J., and S. Newell. 1998. Making sense of the technological innovation: the political and social dynamics of cognition. Pages 108-129 in C. Eden and J.-C. Spencer, editors. Managerial and organisational cognition. Sage Publications, London, UK.

Psykologi og miljø

Lowe, T. D., and I. Lorenzoni. 2007. Danger is all around: eliciting expert perceptions for managing climate change through a mental models approach. Global Environmental Change 17:131-146.

Lynam, T., F. Bousquet, C. Le Page, P. d'Aquino, O. Barreteau, F. Chinembiri, and B. Mombeshora. 2002. Adapting science to adaptive managers: spidergrams, belief models, and multi-agent systems modeling. Conservation Ecology 5(2):24.

Ozesmi, U., and S. L. Ozesmi. 2004. Ecological models based on people's knowledge: a multi-step fuzzy cognition mapping approach. Ecological Modelling 176:43-64.


Neurotechnology and Society (2010–2060)  
The diffusion of neurotechnology will give rise to a new type of human society—a post‐industrial, post‐informational neurosociety. 
Zack Lynch 2006 ... 

Rethinking Human Enhancement: Social Enhancement and Emergent Technologies
Laura Y. Cabrera ...

Neuroethics: Challenges for the 21st Century
Neil Levy 2007 ...

Levy, Neil 2012: Ecological Engineering: Reshaping Our Environments to Achieve Our Goals 
... Human beings are subject to a range of cognitive and affective limitations which interfere with our ability to pursue our individual and social goals. I argue that shaping our environment to avoid triggering these limitations or to constrain the harms they cause is likely to be more effective than genetic or pharmaceutical modifications of our capacities. 
... Liberals and libertarians believe that all restrictions on individual liberty, however minor, require justification. ... 

Science of happiness
Diener, E. (2008). Myths in the science of happiness, and directions for future research. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 493–514). New York: Guilford Press.

Robot Ethics 
The Ethical and Social Implications of Robotics
Edited by Patrick Lin, Keith Abney and George A. Bekey

Nanoethics: The Ethical and Social Implications of Nanotechnology
Fritz Allhoff, Patrick Lin, James H. Moor, John Weckert, Mihail C. Roco (Foreword by) 2007 ... 

Nanoscale: Issues and Perspectives for the Nano Century
Nigel Cameron (Editor), M. Ellen Mitchell (Editor) ... 

Kulturens påvirkning af vores sind
Hvor stor effekt har kulturen på vores psyke? Det forsøger tværkulturel psykologi at afklare. 
v/Nicolas Geeraert, Senior lecturer, University of Essex ... ... ... 

Akerlof, G. A., & Shiller, R. (2009). Animal spirits. How human psychology drives the economy, and why it matters for global capitalism. Princeton University Press.

Barbalet, J. (1998). Emotion, social theory, and social structure: a macrosociological approach. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.

Beckert, J. (2013). Capitalism as a system of fictional expectations. Toward a sociological microfoundation of political economy. Politics and Society (forthcoming).

Beckert, J. (2013). Imagined futures: Fictional expectations in the economy. ... pdf

Dewey, J. (1957). Human nature and conduct. An introduction to social psychology. New York: The
Modern Library.

Smail, Daniel Lord. 2007. On Deep History and the Brain . Berkeley, University of California Press. 

Wilson, T. D. (2002). Strangers to Ourselves: Discovering the Adaptive Unconscious.
Cambridge Massachusetts and London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Jürgen Habermas, The Future of Human Nature. Trans. Hella Beister and William Rehg. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2003.

Kompridis, Nikolas 2009: Technology's challenge to democracy: what of the human? ... pdf

Nikolas Kompridis, Critique and Disclosure: Critical Theory between Past and Future. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006.

Mental time travel

Mental time travel
Tulving’s original ideas of mental time
travel of the self ... ... pdf

Scene construction  
Scene construction – includes the retrieval of relevant semantic and sensory information, its integration into a coherent spatial context  and online maintenance for later manipulation and visualization including possible viewpoint transformation. ... pdf

Prospective planning  
Prospective planning – making plans about how to achieve future goals. ... pdf

Algorithms and the human brain   
This form of deliberative reasoning is essentially ‘imagination’, it is a distinctly human ability and is a crucial tool in our everyday lives. 
Intelligence May Stem From a Basic Algorithm in the Human Brain ... ... 
... human intelligence may be a product of a basic algorithm. ... 

Hassabis et al.  ... maintain that it is possible to richly imagine and visualize a new fictitious experience that is not explicitly temporal in nature, and that is not necessarily self-relevant, plausible or even possible. ... pdf

Self-projection and the brain 
Buckner RL1, Carroll DC.
Abstract: When thinking about the future or the upcoming actions of another person, we mentally project ourselves into that alternative situation. Accumulating data suggest that envisioning the future (prospection), remembering the past, conceiving the viewpoint of others (theory of mind) and possibly some forms of navigation reflect the workings of the same core brain network.
Trends Cogn Sci. 2007 Feb;11(2):49-57.

Development as a dynamic system 
Author links open overlay panel
Linda B.Smith and Esther Thelen ... 


Atance, C.M. and O’Neill, D.K. (2001) Episodic future thinking. Trends. Cogn. Sci. 5, 533–539. 

Hassabis, Demis and Eleanor A. Maguire 2003: Deconstructing episodic memory with
TRENDS in Cognitive Sciences Vol.11 No.7. ... pdf

Szpunar, K.K. et al. (2007) Neural substrates of envisioning the future. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 104, 642–647.

Tulving, E. (1983) Elements of Episodic Memory, Claredon.

Tulving, E. (2002) Episodic memory: from mind to brain. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 53, 1–25.

Stock, Gregory. (2002). Redesigning humans: Our inevitable genetic future. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Siden er under konstruktion.

The Third Culture

Human Nature debate
Steven Pinker and Steven Rose debate ...

Biology Beyond Determinism 
Rose, Steven: Lifelines: Biology Beyond Determinism. 
... recognizes the role of genes without subscribing to genetic determinism ... ...

Rose, Steven: ... we have the ability to construct our own futures, albeit not in circumstances of our own choosing. ...

Steven Pinker: How the Mind Works 

The Modern Denial of Human Nature 
Pinker, Steven: The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature 
... The Blank Slate ... the idea that the human mind has no inherent structure and can be inscribed at will by society or ourselves. ... 

Consciousness and the Brain 

Dehaene, Stanislas 2014: Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts.
Dehaene ...summarizes research on the neuroscience of consciousness. ... 

The Future of the Brain 
Marcus, Gary  and‎ Jeremy Freeman eds. 2014: The Future of the Brain: Essays by the World's Leading Neuroscientists. Princeton University Press.
... describe the spectacular technological advances that will enable us to map the more than eighty-five billion neurons in the brain ...

Human capacities and motivations
People universally have certain basic capacities (intelligence, imagination, problem-solving abilities, etc.) and motivations (for material wellbeing and security, social connection, autonomy, etc.) which would lead one to predict that when they experience things which are harmful to their lives, they will try to do something about it.
When the source of harms is social, this means that in the absence of counteracting forces, people will try to change the social conditions which generate these harms. This does not mean that people never resign themselves to a life of suffering, but that such resignation requires explanation given human intelligence and problem-solving capacity. Something must be interfering with a response that would improve their situation. 
Wright, Erik Olin 2010: Envisioning real utopias. Verso. 
Wright: Envisioning real utopias. Draft 2009 in PDF.

Wright: "I do not think that the problem of
harms can be reduced to a problem of culturally determined perceptions. For a penetrating discussion of a realist view of suffering and flourishing, see Andrew Sayer, The Moral Significance of Class". (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005). 
Wright: Envisioning real utopias. Draft 2009 in PDF.

Personal Identity

Personal Identity  
Personal identity deals with philosophical questions that arise about ourselves by virtue of our being people. ...

human cultural capacity

Dating human cultural capacity using phylogenetic principles  
J. Lind, P. Lindenfors, S. Ghirlanda, K. Lidén & M. Enquist 2013.
... We show that cultural capacity is older than the first split in the modern human lineage, and at least 170,000 years old, based on data on hyoid bone morphology, FOXP2 alleles, agreement between genetic and language trees, fire use, burials, and the early appearance of tools comparable to those of modern hunter-gatherers.

Tomasello, M. The Cultural Origins of Human Cognition.
(Harvard University Press, Cambridge) (2000). 

Boyd, R. & Richerson, P. J. The Origin and Evolution of Culture (Oxford University Press, New York, 2005).

Revolution and expansion

The Human Revolution 
Mellars, P. and C. Stringer (1989). The Human Revolution: Behavioural and Biological Perspectives on the Origins of Modern Humans. Edinburgh University Press. ...

Why did modern human populations disperse from Africa ca. 60,000 years ago? A new model
Paul Mellars 2006. 
... why it took these populations ≈100,000 years to disperse from Africa to other regions of the world.
... Recent archaeological discoveries in southern and eastern Africa suggest that, at approximately the same time, there was a major increase in the complexity of the technological, economic, social, and cognitive behavior of certain African groups, which could have led to a major demographic expansion of these groups in competition with other, adjacent groups.
... emergence of more complex forms of hunting equipment, apparently involving the construction of several different forms of hunting weapons (i.e., the sharply pointed bone spear heads. 
...  the impact of these climatic changes on all aspects of human economic, technological, and social adaptations could have been dramatic, as Deacon, Ambrose, and others (29, 31, 42, 43) have emphasized. 
... anatomically modern skeletal remains from the two sites of Skhul and Qafzeh in northern Israel ... ceremonial or ritualistic burials, ...  the stone tool assemblages found in association with both the Skhul and Qafzeh remains were of typically Middle Palaeolithic or MSA in form, without any trace of the distinctively modern or Upper Palaeolithic technological features recorded at the later African MSA sites of Klasies River, Blombos, and elsewhere. 
...  could be seen simply as a gradual working out of these new cognitive capacities under the stimulus of various kinds of environmental, demographic, or social pressures, in much the same way as that reflected in the later emergence of fully agricultural communities ... 

In Search of the Neanderthals: Solving the Puzzle of Human Origins 
Stringer and Gamble 1993. ... 


Human Cooperation

For Whose Benefit?
The Biological and Cultural Evolution of Human Cooperation

Lindenfors, Patrik 2017. 
...  the two processes that have shaped humanity: biological and cultural evolution. ... 

Køn og psyke

Human capacities for caring and cruelty 
Eisler, Riane 1987: The Chalice and The Blade: Our History, Our Future 
... the cultural construction of gender roles and relations ... this method addresses the question of what kinds of social systems support our human capacities for consciousness, caring, and creativity, or alternately for insensitivity, cruelty, and destructiveness.

Spear and digging stick 
The origin of gender and its implications for the colonization of new continents
Jane Balme, Sandra Bowdler 2006. 
... We argue that there is no biological reason for this behaviour and that it must be a social construct. ... 

Binford, L. R. (1989) ‘Isolating the Transition to Cultural Adaptions: An Organizational Approach’, in E. Trinkaus (ed.) The Emergence of Modern Humans, pp. 18-42. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  

Binford, L. R. (1991) ‘Review of The Human Revolution: Behavioural and Biological Perspectives on the Origins of Modern Humans, by Paul Mellars and Chris Stringer’ , Journal of Field Archaeology 18: 111-115.

Brown, J. K. (1970) ‘A Note on the Division of Labor by Sex’ , American Anthropologist 72: 1073-1078. 

Chen, C. and J. W. Olsen (1990) ‘China at the Last Glacial Maximum’, in O. Soffer and C. Gamble (eds) The World at 18,000 BP. Vol. 1: High Latitudes, pp. 276-295. London: Unwin Hyman.

Conkey, M. W. (1997) ‘Mobilizing Ideologies: Palaeolithic “Art”, Gender Trouble, and Thinking About Alternatives’, in L. D. Hager (ed.) Women in Human Evolution, pp. 172-207. London and New York: Routledge.

Conroy, L. P. (1993) ‘Female Figurines of the Upper Paleolithic and the Emergence of Gender’, in H. du Cros and L. Smith (eds) Women in Archaeology: A Feminist Critique, pp. 153-160. Canberra: Department of Prehistory, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. 

Davidson, I. and W. Noble (1996) Human Evolution, Language and Mind: A Psychological and Archaeological Inquiry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

References ... 

Free Will

Gazzaniga, Michael S. 2011: Who's in Charge?: Free Will and the Science of the Brain. HarperCollins.
Gazzaniga ... makes a powerful and provocative argument that counters the common wisdom that our lives are wholly determined by physical processes we cannot control. ... 

Glannon,Walter 2015: Free Will and the Brain : Neuroscientific, Philosophical, and Legal Perspectives. Cambridge University Press.

Bartra, Roger 2014: Anthropology of the brain : consciousness, culture, and free will.
Cambridge University Press,

The Role of Genes

William R. Clark and Michael Grunstein 2004: Are We Hardwired?: The Role of Genes in Human Behavior, Oxford University Press. 
Book description: 
... roughly half of human behavior can be accounted for by DNA. ...

Richard Dawkins: The Selfish Gene.

Psykologi og krig

Psykologi, kultur og geopolitik 

Gat, Azar 2008: War in Human Civilization.
Oxford University Press; 1 edition.
​... Why do people go to war? Is it rooted in human nature or is it a late cultural invention? How does war relate to the other fundamental developments in the history of human civilization?

Montagu, Ashley  1976: The nature of human aggression.
Oxford University Press. ...

Not in Our Genes: Biology, Ideology and Human Nature  
The book formed part of a larger campaign against sociobiology.
... they have been criticized for misrepresenting the views of scientists such as the biologist E. O. Wilson and the ethologist Richard Dawkins. 

War and Human Nature

War, Peace, and Human Nature 
Fry, Douglas P. (Ed). (2013). War, Peace, and Human Nature: The Convergence of Evolutionary and Cultural Views. New York: Oxford University Press.


Neuroscience, psychology, artificial intelligence, and robotics 
Clark, Andy  2016: Surfing Uncertainty: Prediction, Action, and the Embodied Mind.
Oxford University Press, 2016. 
... "the predictive brain."  ... vision that reveals the brain as our driving force in the daily surf through the waves of sensory stimulation.​ ... ... 

Technologies, and the Future of Human Intelligence 
Andy Clark 2003: Natural-Born Cyborgs: Minds, Technologies, and
the Future of Human Intelligence, Oxford University Press, 2003. ... 

Review of Andy Clark: Natural-Born Cyborgs: Minds, Technologies, and
the Future of Human Intelligence. 
... Since Clarks self-labelled position ‘‘active externalism’’ is a species of externalism, we briefly have to note the fault-line that divides internalism and externalism in recent philosophy of mind and language ...

Bedau, M. (Ed.). (2005). Embodied and situated cognition
[Special issue]. Artificial Life, 11(1–2).

Clark, A. (2001). Reason, robots and the extended mind.
Mind & Language, 16(2), 121–145.

Dartnall, T. (2005). Does the world leak into the mind? Active externalism, ‘‘internalism’’ and epistemology.
Cognitive Science, 29, 135–143.
By Terry Dartnall, Metascience 13: 139–181, 2004. 
... human-machine symbiosis ... ... pdf

Rupert, R. (2005). Minding one`s cognitive systems: When is a group of minds a single cognitive unit?

R. Schantz (Ed.), The externalist challenge: New studies on cognition and intentionality;
Berlin and New York: de Gruyter 2004

Wilson, R. A. (2004). Boundaries of the mind: The individual in the fragile sciences.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wheeler, M. (2005). Reconstructing the cognitive world. Cambridge,
MA: MIT Press.


Greenfield, Susan 2001: Tomorrow’s People: How 21st Century Technology is Changing the Way We Think and Feel.
(London: Penguin/Allen Lane, 2001). ...
Greenfield, Susan, 2015: Mind Change: How digital technologies are leaving their mark on our brains. 
Rider 2015. 
...  how can we harness, rather than be harnessed by, our new technological milieu to create better alternatives and more meaningful lives? ... 
Professor Greenfield is an advisor to the Social Issues Research Centre. ...

Transforming Medical Education for the 21st Century: Megatrends, Priorities and change. 
George R. Lueddeke. Radcliffe Publishing 2012, reprint 2013. ...