Sociale determinationsfaktorer

Geographical factors

Environmental determinism  
Environmental determinism (also known as climatic determinism or geographical determinism) is the study of how the physical environment predisposes societies and states towards particular development trajectories. ...

Ydre natur

Natural resource 
Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind. 
... In recent years, the depletion of natural resources has become a major focus  ...



China’s Rare-Earth Industry 
China’s dominant position as the producer of over 95 percent of the world output of rare-earth
minerals and rapid increases in the consumption of rare earths owing to the emergence of new cleanenergy
and defense-related technologies, combined with China’s decisions to restrict exports of rare
earths, have resulted in heightened concerns about the future availability of rare earths. ...pdf

Randers, Jørgen 2012: 2052: A global forecast for the next forty years. Chelsea Green Publishing Co. 
(Randers 2012: 153n15).

China and the rare earths trade 
The false monopoly: China and the rare earths trade
By Chris Lo 
... group of 17 elements, which have become vital in the manufacturing of high-tech products  ... 
WTO found in favour of the complainants, concluding in summer 2014 that China was indeed violating its free trade commitments. ... After all, there is no shortage of proven rare earth deposits outside of China; the country’s dominance in the market doesn’t come from any physical exclusivity. ... 

If Beijing wants to raise its prices and start using supplies as geopolitical bargaining chips, so what? The rest of the world will simply roll up its sleeves and ramp up production, and the monopoly will be broken. ... ... 

Limits to Growth

Revisiting the Limits to Growth
After Peak Oil

The ecosphere is that part of Earth which directly or indirectly maintains its structure and flow
using the exergy (ordered energy, available work) flow from the ”sun/space battery”. With this
definition the ecosphere contains the biosphere , the atmosphere (including the protective
stratospheric ozone layer), the hydrosphere and the pedosphere (the free layer of soils above
the bed-rock). The lithosphere is the rest of Earth, i.e., its core, mantle and crust. Processes in
the lithosphere are mainly driven by radioactive decays of its heavy elements. The formation and
concentration of minerals in the lithosphere is so slow that these resources, as viewed from the
society, can be considered as finite stocks. 

Holmberg, J. and Robèrt, K-H. (2000). "Backcasting from non-overlapping sustainability principles – a framework for strategic planning." International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 7:291-308. ... pdf

Wicander , Reed & Monroe, James S. 1993 . Historical Geology: Evolution of the Earth and
Life through Time. Minneapolis/St. Paul , West Publishing Company.

Zeilinga de Boer, Jelle & Sanders, Donald Theodore. 2002. Volcanoes in Human History:
The Far - Reaching Effects of Major Eruptions. Princeton & Oxford , Princeton University

Zeilinga de Boer, Jelle & Sanders, Donald Theodore . 2005. Earthquakes in Human History: The Far - Reaching Effects of Seismic Disruptions. Princeton & Oxford, Princeton University Press. 

Spier, Fred 2010: Big history and the future of humanity. Wiley-Blackwell. 


Den geografiske faktor

Den geografiske faktor omhandler:
Floder, bjerge, have mm.
Biologi, sygdom, bakterier og virus. 

Den geografiske faktor kaldes også for den ydre natur.

Den ydre natur kan karakteriseres som en invariabel faktor, ide mennesket indflydelse på naturen her kategoriseres under miljø-faktoren, se næste del.

Den geografiske faktors teorihistorie 

Floden vander og gøder markerne. 
Effektiv transport med både.
De store flodkulturer er:
Mesopotamien (Irak), Ægypten og Kina.


Platon fortæller om hvordan samfundsforholdene forandrer sig når bønderne flytter ned i dalene.

Montesquieu overvejer hvordan forskellige klimaforhold forandrer samfundet.
Meteorological climate theory. ...

Oriental Despotism: A Comparative Study of Total Power


EU området

Critical Raw Materials (CRMs)
Difficulties in the access to Critical Raw Materials (CRMs) are expected to depress industrial sectors vital to Europe. That could be also de case of Nanotechnology, one of the strongest pillars of EU innovation and the most promising industry for the 21st century. ...

European initiative for sustainable development by Nanotechnologies
NANOfutures environment is an ETIP European Technology Integrating and Innovation Platform

EuroNanoForum ...

RAWNANOVALUE will have a direct impact over the way that the EU industrial development of Nanotechnology is conceived ...

Environmental determinism 
Environmental determinism, also known as climatic determinism and geographical determinism.  
Jared Diamond, Jeffrey Herbst, Ian Morris.

Ian Morris  
His 2010 book, Why the West Rules—For Now, compares East and West across the last 15,000 years, arguing that physical geography, rather than culture, religion, politics, genetics, or great men, explains Western domination of the globe.
Ian Morris: ... It is not differences of race or culture, or even the strivings of great individuals, that explain Western dominance. It is the effects of geography on the everyday efforts of ordinary people as they deal with crises of resources, disease, migration, and climate. ... 


Evolutionary biology 
Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth.

Geografi- og miljø-faktoren gennem historien 

CO2 udledning, drivhuseffekten
Ændrede vejrforhold, havene stiger, tørke oversvømmelser, orkaner mm. 

Overgangen fra jæger-samler til bofast landbrug   
Sygdomme på grund af bakterier og smitte fra dyrene som mennesket lever tæt på i landbruget.
Udveksling af bakterier mellem flere mennesker. Ændrede kostvaner mm.

Den sorte død

Columbian exchange 
Bakterier og virus mellem Amerika og Europa efter Columbus.
Eks. syfilis i Europa. Fire mulige forklaringer på syfilis' opståen ( ...).
Eks. indianerne bliver syge og dør af mæslinger og kopper ...

Environmental history

McNeill, John R (2003). "Observations on the Nature and Culture of Environmental History". History and Theory. 42 (1): 5–43.

Langdon Winner

Langdon Winner 1989: The Whale and the Reactor: A Search for Limits in an Age of High Technology 

"The questions he poses about the relationship between technical change and political power are pressing ones that can no longer be ignored, and identifying them is perhaps the most a nascent 'philosophy of technology' can expect to achieve at the present time. ...


Jared Diamond

Jared Diamond ... He looks at tropical (central Africa and America) vs. temperate areas (North and South Africa and America) and realizes that the differences of wealth of nations are caused by the weather conditions: ...

Jared Diamond 2005: Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed.
... Diamond reviews the causes of historical and pre-historical instances of societal collapse — particularly those involving significant influences from environmental changes, the effects of climate change, hostile neighbors, and trade partners — and considers the responses different societies have had to such threats. ...

Niall Ferguson

Niall Ferguson 2011: Civilization: The West and the Rest.
Fergusons six "killer apps:"competition, science, the rule of law, medicine, consumerism and the work ethic". ...

Jared Diamond

Europa og Amerika
In his book Guns, Germs and Steel, Jared Diamond asks why European colonists conquered the Americas and Africa, instead of the other way around. He traces back the historical factors: infectious disease like smallpox, superior military technology (such as guns and horses), and the expertise that came from more widespread literacy. 
Kleiner, A. (1999) ‘Scenario practice’, written for the Whole Earth Quarterly. ... 

Geografi, geopolitik og politik

Harbors and Democracy - Working Paper 2018
John Gerring, Tore Wig, Andreas Forø Tollefsen, and Brendan Apfeld.
This study focuses on the possible impact of a feature of littoral geography: natural harbors with access to the sea.
By virtue of enhancing connections to the wider world, we argue that harbors foster (a) development, (b) mobility, (c) naval-based defense forces, and (d) diffusion. 
​  ... pdf 

Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) is a new approach to conceptualization and measurement of democracy.
The headquarters – the V-Dem Institute – is based at the University of Gothenburg  ... pdf 

Water and Society: Changing Perceptions of Societal and Historical Development
Terje Tvedt. I.B.Tauris, 2015 
... Terje Tvedt argues for a change that acknowledges the significant role played by water in societal development. ... 

A Journey in the Future of Water 
Terje Tvedt. I.B.Tauris, 2013 ... 

Global container flows and urban hierarchies 
Is maritime transport an urban network? The interplay between global container flows and urban hierarchies,
Ducruet C. (chapter submitted) in: Neal Z., Rozenblat C. (Eds.), International Handbook on Cities and Networks, Edward Elgar Publishing: Cheltenham UK. ... 

World shipping flows across the global urban hierarchy, Ducruet C., Cuyala S., El Hosni A. (2017) in: Ducruet, C. (Ed.), Shipping Data Analysis and Modeling. Tracking and Mapping Maritime Flows in the Age of Big Data, Routledge Studies in Transport Analysis, Routledge: London & New York, pp. 273-294. ... 

The International Encyclopedia of Geography 
Transport networks, Ducruet C. (2017) in: Richardson, D. (Ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Geography, Wiley-Blackwell & Association of American Geographers. ... 

Interoceanic Canals and World Seaborne Trade: Past, Present, and Future 
The polarisation of global container flows by interoceanic canals , Ducruet C. (2015) in: Charlier J., De Meyer C., Paelinck H. (Eds.), Interoceanic Canals and World Seaborne Trade: Past, Present, and Future, Brussels: The Royal Academy of Overseas Sciences, pp. 27-44. ... 

Co-evolutionary dynamics of ports and cities in the global maritime network, 1950-1990
Ducruet C., Cuyala S., El Hosni A., Kosowska-Stamirowska Z. (2015) in: Ducruet C. (Ed.), Maritime Networks: Spatial Structures and Time Dynamics, Routledge Studies in Transport Analysis Series, pp. 351-373.

Europe in global maritime flows: Gateways, Forelands, and Subnetworks
Ducruet C., Joly O., Le Cam M. (2014) in: in: Pain K. and Van Hamme G. (Eds), Changing Urban and Regional Relations in a Globalizing World: Europe as a Global Macro-Region, Edward Elgar, pp. 164-180 (To know more: PDF).

Ports in a world maritime system : A multilevel analysis, Ducruet C. (2013) in : Rozenblat, C., Mélançon, G. (eds.), Methods for Multilevel Analysis and Visualization of Geographical Networks, Springer Geography, pp. 121-140.

Göbekli Tepe

Younger Dryas climatic event (10,800 – 9,500 BCE) 
... the upper reaches of the Euphrates and Tigris was a refuge during the dry and cold Younger Dryas climatic event (10,800 – 9,500 BCE).
Crowded conditions could have led these people to develop common rituals strengthened by monumental gathering places to reduce tensions and conflicts over resources, and probably to mark territorial claims. ...

Oliver, Dietrich (2017). "Cooperative Action of Hunter-Gatherers in the Early Neolithic Near East. A View from Göbekli Tepe".
...  there are also signs of evolving strategies for conflict mitigation and cooperation. ... 

Commemorating Klaus Schmidt (1953-2014)  
Klaus Schmidt, the former head of the Göbekli Tepe research project ... 

Gazelle behaviour and human presence at early Neolithic Göbekli Tepe, south-east Anatolia 
... Conceivably working events, feasting and performing rituals at Göbekli Tepe coincided with high game density in the southern Anti-Taurus piedmont. ...